I have noticed that goals that are externally defined often result in low levels of motivation; and even may cause resentment and resistance in the student. This occurs even when the goals are well described and well understood. It happens most often when the goals are not well accepted, or not connected sufficiently to the student's personal life.
I have also noticed that goals that are internally defined by the student result in higher levels of motivation and a different kind of resistance.
As coaching becomes more frequently used in schools and colleges we shall see more work done in balancing these two sets of goals. The personal, student goals and the community, educational goals. There need be no conflict between these sets of goals. There will be a need to build bridges between them.